Organisation och finansiering

 

Inom ESS arbetar förutom några hundra fast anställda dessutom ett flertal konsulter, gästforskare m fl. Därutöver är ett stort antal forskare och experter, baserade från andra universitet och forskningsanläggningar runt om i världen, aktiva i det pågående arbetet med ESS.

ESS är ett europeiskt projekt, med för närvarande sjutton partnerländer. Bolaget European Spallation Source ESS AB är ett svenskt statligt aktiebolag som ägs av den svenska och den danska staten. Bolaget lyder under samma lagar som privata bolag i Sverige, men lyder även under europeisk upphandlingslagstiftning. Företaget har i uppgift att planera, projektera, finansiera, uppföra, äga, förvalta, driva och underhålla anläggningen i Lund och det datacenter som byggs i Köpenhamn.

ESS investeringskostnad är beräknad till 1,84 miljarder euro (2013) och driften preliminärt beräknad till 140 miljoner euro per år. Värdländerna Sverige och Danmark står för 35 procent respektive 12,5 procent av investeringskostnaden och Sverige kommer att stå för 10 procent av driftskostnaderna. De resterande investeringskostnaderna fördelas på de övriga deltagande länderna.

Finansieringsmodellen innebär att den övervägande delen av värdländernas finansiering består av kontanta bidrag medan partnerländerna i huvudsak deltar med så kallade in-kind-bidrag (varor och tjänster i natura). Omkring 35-40 procent av den totala kostnaden beräknas komma som in-kind.

In-kind-avtalen hanteras av en särskilt tillsatt kommitté, In-kind Review Committee. Kommittén granskar avtalen och rekommenderar dem till ESS internationella styrkommitté för godkännande.

High school smoking falls as eNEW YORK Teen smoking hit a new low last year while the popularity of electronic cigarettes and cheap nhl jerseys china water pipes boomed, a government report shows.

The number of high school students who tried e cigarettes tripled in one year to more than 13 percent. Water pipes or hookahs were used by 9.4 percent.

But smoking of traditional cigarettes plummeted to 9.2 percent from more than 13 percent. That means smoking in high school is now less common than e cigarette or hookah use.

The decline in cigarette smoking ”is very dramatic and very encouraging,” said Robin Koval, president of Legacy, an anti smoking organization.

The report released Thursday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cheap nfl jerseys mirrors the results of another government funded study issued in December.

The CDC report is based on a national survey of about 22,000 students at middle schools and high schools, both public and private. Similar trends were found for middle school but at lower levels of use.

Students were asked whether they had smoked or used a tobacco product in the previous 30 days; those who said yes were deemed current smokers

Besides cigarettes, the report found continuing declines in wholesale cheap nfl jerseys the use of cigars, chewing tobacco and snuff among high school students.

CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden this week described the findings as ”alarming.” He said the decline in use of most tobacco products was more than offset by the growth in nicotine laden e cigarettes and hookahs.

Some public health experts say the CDC is taking an unusually hard stand against e cigarettes, at a time when scientists still trying to determine how harmful they are. in 2006 and are often described as a less dangerous alternative to cigarettes.

E cigarettes are battery powered devices that produce an odorless vapor that typically contains nicotine and flavorings.

Scientists say nicotine is harmful for the developing brain. Frieden said e cigarettes are a new way of introducing kids to nicotine and potentially hooking them on tobacco products in the future.

”The idea that kids are better off using e cigarettes is just the wrong way of thinking about it,” he said.

A year ago, the Food and Drug Administration proposed regulating e cigarettes, including banning sales to minors. A final rule wholesale jerseys is expected by June, an FDA spokesman said Thursday.

Others were more positive about the new report and the drop in traditional cigarettes, and voiced more uncertainty about the science around e cigarettes. There’s not yet a scientific consensus on whether kids who try e cigarettes go on to become regular smokers, Koval said.Articles Connexes: