Finansiering och organisation – XFEL

 

Det tyska bolaget European XFEL GmbH (The European X-Ray Free-Electron Laser Facility GmbH) är ett icke-vinstdrivande bolag som bildades för att förverkliga planerna för den nya anläggningen. Bolaget lyder under tysk lagstiftning och dess huvudägare är det tyska forskningscentrat DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron). DESY företräder European XFEL och har genom ett kommissionärsavtal ansvar för både byggnationen och den framtida driften av XFEL.

Följande 12 länder deltar i European XFEL- projektet genom nationella representanter; Danmark, Frankrike, Tyskland, Grekland, Ungern, Italien, Polen, Ryssland, Slovakien, Spanien, Sverige och Schweiz.

Hela byggprojektet beräknas kosta drygt 1,15 miljard euro (prisnivå 2005), motsvarande 10 miljarder SEK. Tyskland som värdnation bekostar 54 % av hela projektet, Ryssland 23 % och de 11 övriga nationella parterna mellan 1-3,5 % av investeringen.

En stor del av XFEL finansieras genom in-kind-contribution (IKC), vilket innebär att partnerna bidrar med varor och tjänster istället för med kontanta medel. Ungefär 50 % av projektet är för närvarande finansierat genom IKC.  Varje partner anmäler sitt intresse för IKC varefter bidraget värderas och godkännas av The In-Kind Review Committee (IKRC).

Totalt är det 250 personer som är verksamma vid European XFEL, inklusive studenter och gästforskare.

 

Snow and Ice Control

Keeping Edmonton streets in safe winter driving condition

The City of Edmonton is committed to providing snow and ice control that will make it possible for commuters, transit users and those moving commercial goods wholesale jerseys china to travel more safely. In any given snow event, Transportation Services has a priority system to keep traffic flowing smoothly:

During snow events, after the arterial and collector road network has been plowed and considered to be in a safe condition, a city wide neighbourhood blading program will be initiated.

Neighbourhood roads will wholesale jerseys be bladed to a 5cm snow pack condition (not down to asphalt). Alleys will be bladed prior to front streets to provide improved access to off road parking options (garages, parking pads).

This service level will only involve the blading of snow.

See when your neighbourhood is scheduled for blading.

The City sands roads and walkways as required.

There are 130 sanding trucks and 20 sidewalk plows that operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, from October to April.

The initial response to a snowfall is to apply abrasive street sand and de icers, to provide traction.

Salt Usage

Edmonton is one of the lowest salt users of major cities in Canada. We use a combination of course sand, limestone, liquid calcium chloride and salt to provide traction during the winter season.

Salt accounts for only 12% to 18% of the total materials applied to the roads.

As the temperature drops and salt is less effective, the percentage of salt in the mix is reduced.

Edmonton has a Salt Management Plan and reports on our salt usage annually to both Environment Canada and Alberta Environment.

Transportation Operations has partnered with Parks Branch to work with the U of A on research into the impact of winter maintenance of roadside trees.

In 2013/14, Roadway Maintenance used:

97,691 tonnes of street sand (including 87,934 tonnes of recycled sand)

18,806 tonnes of salt

34,354 tonnes of rock chips

143,981 litres of calcium chlorideThe City of Edmonton recovers the street sand used during their winter road maintenance program. The City’s street sand wholesale nfl jerseys from china recycling process is the largest and most successful program of its kind in North America. The street cheap jerseys sand recycling program reduces waste entering the City of Edmonton’s landfill, saves money and raises the bar for environmental standards for cities using street sand.

Street sand is picked up and cleaned from approximately 4,800 km of Edmonton roads each spring.

Edmonton uses approximately 150,000 180,000 tonnes of street sand each winter.

The City picks up approximately 70% of the sand placed during the winter and approximately 80% of the sand that is picked up is re used.Articles Connexes: